Mini-Pterional Craniotomy and Extradural Clinoidectomy for Clinoid Meningioma: Optimization of Exposure Using Augmented Reality Template: 2-Dimensional Operative Video

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2020 Nov 16;19(6):E610. doi: 10.1093/ons/opaa238.


A "keyhole" approach to a deep-lying skull base lesion, as such a clinoid meningioma, can be a daunting challenge.1-3 The minimally invasive exposure must be precisely placed and adequately wide to accomplish the surgical goal. Surgical rehearsal in virtual reality (VR) can not only increase the confidence of the surgeon through practice on patient-specific anatomy,4 but it can also generate navigation-integrated templates to ensure precise placement and adequate bone openings. In this operative video, we demonstrate the use of an augmented reality (AR) template in a 69-yr-old woman with a growing clinoid meningioma. The 3-dimensional, VR rendering (SNAP VR360, Surgical Theater Inc, Cleveland, Ohio) of her right clinoid meningioma was used in surgical rehearsal for the mini-pterional approach with extradural clinoidectomy. The optimal opening was saved as a VR file and, at surgery, projected into the eye-piece of the navigation-tracked microscope (Synchronized AR v3.8.0, Surgical Theater Inc). In this manner, the surgical opening in the template was visible in AR on the patient's anatomy in real time during surgery. The template enhanced the planning of the incision and soft-tissue exposure, guided the drilling of the sphenoid wing, facilitated the extradural clinoidectomy,5 and ultimately facilitated the accomplishment of the surgical goal of total resection of the meningioma. With this application of novel technology, the surgeon is no longer using navigation to get her/his bearings. Instead, the surgeon is using AR-enhanced navigation to duplicate a plan that is known to work. This is a fundamental paradigm shift. Patient consent was obtained prior to the creation of the video and is available on request.

Keywords: Augmented reality; Clinoid meningioma; Extradural clinoidectomy; Mini-pterional craniotomy.