Background: To develop and test brief nutrition and physical activity screening questions for children ages 2-11 years that could be used as a pragmatic screening tool to tailor counseling, track behavior change, and improve population health. Methods: A literature review identified existing validated questions for nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children ages 2-11 years. Response variation and concurrent validity was then assessed using a mechanical Turk (MTurk) crowdsourcing survey employed in 2018. Additionally, cognitive interviews were conducted with both providers and parents of 2- to 11-year-old children to assess screening question priorities and perceived added value. Results: The literature review identified 260 questions, and 20 items were selected with expert guidance based on prespecified criteria (simplicity and potential utility for both clinical interactions during a well-child exam and population health). MTurk surveys yielded 1147 records that met eligibility criteria and revealed 6 items that had adequate response variation and were significantly correlated with parent-reported child BMI or BMI percentile, exhibiting concurrent validity. Cognitive interviews with 10 providers and 20 parents uncovered themes regarding suggestions and usability of the questions, eliminating 3 items due to parent and provider concerns. Combining quantitative and qualitative results, 3 nutrition and physical activity screening items remained for inclusion into the electronic health record (EHR). Conclusions: The three-pronged validation methodology produced a brief, 3-item child nutrition and physical activity screener to incorporate in the EHR, where it can inform tailored counseling for well-child care and be used to test associations with population health outcomes.
Keywords: behavior counseling; child health behavior; electronic health record; health screening tool; population health; preventive interventions.