Customized Frozen Embryo Transfer after Identification of the Receptivity Window with a Transcriptomic Approach Improves the Implantation and Live Birth Rates in Patients with Repeated Implantation Failure

Reprod Sci. 2021 Jan;28(1):69-78. doi: 10.1007/s43032-020-00252-0. Epub 2020 Jul 28.


The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate outcome benefits expected in repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients (n = 217) after customized embryo transfer based upon identification of the receptivity window by transcriptomic approach using the Win-Test. In this test, the expression of 11 endometrial genes known to be predictive of endometrial receptivity is assessed by RT-PCR in biopsies collected during the implantation window (6-9 days after the spontaneous luteinizing hormone surge during natural cycles, 5-9 days after progesterone administration during hormone replacement therapy cycles). Then, patients underwent either customized embryo transfer (cET, n = 157 patients) according to the Win-Test results or embryo transfer according to the classical procedure (control group, n = 60). Pregnancy and live birth rates were compared in the two groups. The Win-Test showed that in 78.5% of women, the receptivity window lasted less than 48 h, although it could be shorter (< 24 h, 9.5%) or longer (> 48 h, 12%). This highlighted that only in 20% of patients with RIF the endometrium would have been receptive if the classical embryo transfer protocol was followed. In the other 80% of patients, the receptivity window was delayed by 1-3 days relative to the classical timing. This suggests that implantation failure could be linked to inadequate timing of embryo transfer. In agreement, both implantation (22.7% vs. 7.2%) and live birth rates per patient (31.8% vs. 8.3%) were significantly higher in the cET group than in the control group. cET on the basis of the Win-Test results could be proposed to improve pregnancy and live birth ID: NCT04192396; December 5, 2019, retrospectively registered.

Keywords: Implantation window; Receptivity window; Transcriptome; Win-Test.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cryopreservation*
  • Embryo Implantation / genetics*
  • Embryo Transfer / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro / adverse effects*
  • France
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Humans
  • Infertility / diagnosis
  • Infertility / physiopathology
  • Infertility / therapy*
  • Live Birth
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Rate
  • Prospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Transcriptome*
  • Treatment Failure

Associated data