Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Immune Signature of Infection Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis of Clinical Pediatric Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples

J Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 29;223(6):1052-1061. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa468.


Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) constitutes one the main causes of respiratory infection in neonates and infants worldwide. Transcriptome analysis of clinical samples using high-throughput technologies remains an important tool to better understand virus-host complex interactions in the real-life setting but also to identify new diagnosis/prognosis markers or therapeutics targets. A major challenge when exploiting clinical samples such as nasal swabs, washes, or bronchoalveolar lavages is the poor quantity and integrity of nucleic acids. In this study, we applied a tailored transcriptomics workflow to exploit nasal wash samples from children who tested positive for HRSV. Our analysis revealed a characteristic immune signature as a direct reflection of HRSV pathogenesis and highlighted putative biomarkers of interest such as IP-10, TMEM190, MCEMP1, and TIMM23.

Keywords: DNA microarray; NanoString assay; nasal epithelium; respiratory syncytial virus; transcriptome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Nasopharynx
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections* / diagnosis
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections* / immunology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human
  • Respiratory Tract Infections* / diagnosis
  • Respiratory Tract Infections* / immunology