Attempt to Construct an In Vitro Model of Enhancement of Macrophage Phagocytosis Via Continuous Administration of LPS

Anticancer Res. 2020 Aug;40(8):4711-4717. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.14472.


Background: Continuous oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the phagocytic ability of macrophages, which is useful for preventing various diseases. Here, we attempted to create an in vitro model of continuous administration of LPS.

Materials and methods: RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS three times every 24 h (repeated stimulation), and phagocytic ability and inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)] production were measured.

Results: The phagocytic ability was increased by a single stimulation with LPS and was maintained by repeated stimulation. IL6 production increased with a single stimulation with LPS; however, IL6 production by repeated stimulation with LPS was comparable to that of non-stimulation with LPS. On the other hand, the amount of TNFα was significantly increased by single and repeated stimulation with LPS.

Conclusion: Repeated stimulation with LPS in RAW264.7 cells triggered a phenotype that was similar to that of macrophages after continuous oral administration of LPS. This suggests that this study model may reproduce the enhancement of macrophage phagocytosis, an effect afforded by continuous oral administration of LPS.

Keywords: In vitro; LPS; macrophage; oral administration; phagocytosis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Phagocytosis / drug effects*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha