miRNAs have been reported to be stably detectable in plasma and to function as potent biomarkers in multiple cancers. The study aimed to evaluate the expression of candidate circulating miRNAs in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) to identify potential noninvasive biomarkers. The expression of five miRNAs (miR-92b, miR-146a, miR-375, miR-1224, and miR-1246) was significantly upregulated in plasma after chemoresistance induction. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) values of miR-92b and miR-375 were 0.766 and 0.791, respectively. The data demonstrated that among the five miRNAs assessed, these two miRNAs had better diagnostic accuracy for monitoring drug resistance. In addition, miR-92b and miR-375 levels were decreased after effective chemotherapy. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed that high expression of miR-92b and miR-375 was closely related to shorter progression-free survival (PFS) in SCLC patients. In conclusion, these findings indicate that circulating miR-92b and miR-375 might be ideal noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring drug resistance during chemotherapy and evaluating the prognosis of patients with SCLC.