The Evaluation and Management of the Failed Primary Arthroscopic Bankart Repair

J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2020 Aug 1;28(15):607-616. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-17-00077.


Primary arthroscopic Bankart repair is a common procedure that is increasing in popularity; however, failure rates can approach up to 6% to 30%. Factors commonly attributed to failure include repeat trauma, poor or incomplete surgical technique, humeral and/or glenoid bone loss, hyperlaxity, or a failure to identify and address rare pathology such as a humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament lesion. A thorough clinical and radiographic assessment may provide insight into the etiology, which can assist the clinician in making treatment recommendations. Surgical management of a failed primary arthroscopic Bankart repair without bone loss can include revision arthroscopic repair or open repair; however, in the setting of bone loss, the anterior-inferior glenoid can be reconstructed using a coracoid transfer, tricortical iliac crest, or structural allograft, whereas posterolateral humeral head bone loss (the Hill-Sachs defect) can be addressed with remplissage, structural allograft, or partial humeral head implant. In addition to the technical demands of revision stabilization surgery, patient and procedure selection to optimize outcomes can be challenging. This review will focus on the etiology, evaluation, and management of patients after a failed primary arthroscopic Bankart repair, including an evidence-based treatment algorithm.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthroscopy / methods*
  • Bankart Lesions / diagnostic imaging
  • Bankart Lesions / etiology
  • Bankart Lesions / pathology
  • Bankart Lesions / surgery*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / etiology
  • Joint Instability / surgery
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods*
  • Reoperation
  • Scapula / surgery
  • Shoulder Joint / surgery
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Failure*