Assesment of Risk Factors for Tardive Dyskinesia

Psychopharmacol Bull. 2020 Jul 23;50(3):36-46.


Objective: Aim of the study is to evaluate sociodemographic and clinical features that may be associated with the development of Tardive dyskinesia (TD).

Methods: 80 patients attending an outpatient psychiatry clinic in Istanbul, Turkey were divided into TD (n = 50) and control groups (CG) (n = 30). Sociodemographic and clinical data was collected through face-to-face interviews and a retrospective search of medical records.

Results: There was a significant difference between TD and control group (CG) in terms of mean; onset of psychiatric disease at or after 35 years of age; first use of APD at or after 35 years of age; use of long-acting injectable APD; history of extrapyramidal side-effects; history of akathisia and family history of psychiatric disease. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of DSM- IV-based psychiatric diagnosis distributions, the existence of complete recovery periods during the course of the disease; total duration of APD use for at least 10 years; APD holidays; regular APD use; history of ECT and smoking or alcohol and substance abuse/addiction.

Conclusion: Advancing age seemed to be the most significant risk factor in the development of TD. Clinicians need to be cautious about TD when prescribing APD for elderly patients.

Keywords: Tardive dyskinesia; antipsychotic drugs; drug-induced movement disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antipsychotic Agents* / adverse effects
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced*
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Tardive Dyskinesia* / chemically induced
  • Tardive Dyskinesia* / epidemiology


  • Antipsychotic Agents