Biallelic ZNF407 mutations in a neurodevelopmental disorder with ID, short stature and variable microcephaly, hypotonia, ocular anomalies and facial dysmorphism

J Hum Genet. 2020 Dec;65(12):1115-1123. doi: 10.1038/s10038-020-0812-0. Epub 2020 Jul 31.


We describe five members of a consanguineous Pakistani family (Family I) plus two affected children from families of different ethnic origins presenting with neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping features. All affected individuals from families have intellectual disability (ID), ranging from mild to profound, and reduced motor and cognitive skills plus variable features including short stature, microcephaly, developmental delay, hypotonia, dysarthria, deafness, visual problems, enuresis, encopresis, behavioural anomalies, delayed pubertal onset and facial dysmorphism. We first mapped the disease locus in the large family (Family I), and by exome sequencing identified homozygous ZNF407 c.2814_2816dup (p.Val939dup) in four affected members where DNA samples were available. By exome sequencing we detected homozygous c.2405G>T (p.Gly802Val) in the affected member of Family II and compound heterozygous variants c.2884C>G (p.Arg962Gly) and c.3642G>C (p.Lys1214Asn) in the affected member of Family III. Homozygous c.5054C>G (p.Ser1685Trp) has been reported in two brothers with an ID syndrome. Affected individuals we present did not exhibit synophrys, midface hypoplasia, kyphosis, 5th finger camptodactyly, short 4th metatarsals or limited knee mobility observed in the reported family.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Dwarfism / complications
  • Dwarfism / genetics*
  • Dwarfism / pathology
  • Exome / genetics
  • Exome Sequencing
  • Female
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / complications
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics*
  • Intellectual Disability / pathology
  • Male
  • Microcephaly / complications
  • Microcephaly / genetics*
  • Microcephaly / pathology
  • Motor Activity / physiology
  • Muscle Hypotonia / complications
  • Muscle Hypotonia / genetics
  • Muscle Hypotonia / pathology
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / complications
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / genetics*
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders / pathology
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • ZNF407 protein, human