Aims: To determine whether enzyme-inducing antiseizure drugs (ASDs) affect the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer in smokers.
Methods: Cases of COPD and lung cancer and matched controls without these conditions were identified from a population of smokers with ≥1 prescription for any type of ASD in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink UK database of patients managed in primary care (1995-2016). A matched case-control study was performed utilising multivariate logistic regression analyses of exposure to enzyme-inducing ASDs compared to non-enzyme-inducing ASDs. The duration of ASD exposure and level of tobacco exposure were also assessed.
Results: We identified 5952 incident COPD and 1373 incident lung cancer cases, and 59 328 and 13 681 matched controls, respectively. Compared with never use, ever use of enzyme-inducing ASDs was associated with slightly decreased risk estimates of COPD (adjusted odds ratio: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.89) and lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio: 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.92). These risk estimates were attenuated in heavy smokers.
Conclusion: We found slightly decreased risk estimates of COPD and lung cancer among smokers taking enzyme-inducing ASDs and hypothesise that this may be related to induction of detoxification of tobacco-specific lung toxins.
Keywords: antiepileptic drugs; antiseizure drugs; bipolar disorder; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; enzyme inducers; enzyme induction; epilepsy; lung cancer; neuropathic pain and migraine prophylaxis; smoking.
© 2020 The British Pharmacological Society.