Nelson's syndrome (NS) is a condition which may develop in patients with Cushing's disease after bilateral adrenalectomy. Although there is no formal consensus on what defines NS, corticotroph tumor growth and/or gradually increasing ACTH levels are important diagnostic elements. Pathogenesis is unclear and well-established predictive factors are lacking; high ACTH during the first year after bilateral adrenalectomy is the most consistently reported predictive parameter. Management is individualized and includes surgery, with or without radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone, and observation; medical treatments have shown inconsistent results. A subset of tumors demonstrates aggressive behavior with challenging management, malignant transformation and poor prognosis.
Keywords: Bilateral adrenalectomy; Corticotroph tumor progression; Cushing’s; Nelson’s syndrome; Tumor growth.
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