Oxylipins are considered biomarkers related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). They are generated in vivo via the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids as a result of oxidative stress and inflammation. Oxylipins are involved in vascular functions and are produced during foam cell formation in atherogenesis. Additionally, the consumption coffee is associated with the regulation on a particular oxylipin group, the F2t-isoprostanes (F2t-IsoPs). This function has been attributed to the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) from the coffee beverage. Considering the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of CGAs, we evaluated the effects of two types of coffee that provided 787 mg CGAs/day (Coffee A) and 407 mg CGAs/day (Coffee B) by reducing 35 selected oxylipins in healthy subjects. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of CGAs on the cellular proatherogenic response in foam cells by using an oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-macrophage interaction model. After eight weeks of coffee consumption, the contents of 12 urine oxylipins were reduced. However, the effect of Coffee A showed a stronger decrease in IsoPs, dihomo-IsoPs, prostaglandins (PGs) and PG metabolites, probably due to its higher content of CGAs. Neither of the two coffees reduced the levels of oxLDL. Moreover, the in vitro oxylipin induction by oxLDL on foam cells was ameliorated by phenolic acids and CGAs, including the inhibition of IsoPs and PGs by caffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acids, respectively, while the phenolic acids maintained both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These findings suggest that coffee antioxidants are strong regulators of oxylipins related to CVDs. The clinical trial was registered on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, WHO primary registry (RPCEC00000168).
Keywords: Chlorogenic acids; Coffee beverage; Macrophage foam cells.; Oxylipins; oxLDL.
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