Multiple forms of homeostasis influence synaptic function under diverse activity conditions. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic forms of homeostasis are important, but their relative impact on fidelity is unknown. To address this issue, we studied auditory nerve synapses onto bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus of mice of both sexes. These synapses undergo bidirectional presynaptic and postsynaptic homeostatic changes with increased and decreased acoustic stimulation. We found that both young and mature synapses exhibit similar activity-dependent changes in short-term depression. Experiments using chelators and imaging both indicated that presynaptic Ca2+ influx decreased after noise exposure, and increased after ligating the ear canal. By contrast, Ca2+ cooperativity was unaffected. Experiments using specific antagonists suggest that occlusion leads to changes in the Ca2+ channel subtypes driving neurotransmitter release. Furthermore, dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that spike fidelity primarily depended on changes in presynaptic depression, with some contribution from changes in postsynaptic intrinsic properties. These experiments indicate that presynaptic Ca2+ influx is homeostatically regulated in vivo to enhance synaptic fidelity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Homeostatic mechanisms in synapses maintain stable function in the face of different levels of activity. Both juvenile and mature auditory nerve synapses onto bushy cells modify short-term depression in different acoustic environments, which raises the question of what the underlying presynaptic mechanisms are and the relative importance of presynaptic and postsynaptic contributions to the faithful transfer of information. Changes in short-term depression under different acoustic conditions were a result of changes in presynaptic Ca2+ influx. Spike fidelity was affected by both presynaptic and postsynaptic changes after ear occlusion and was only affected by presynaptic changes after noise-rearing. These findings are important for understanding regulation of auditory synapses under normal conditions and also in disorders following noise exposure or conductive hearing loss.
Keywords: auditory nerve; bushy cell; calcium imaging; endbulb of Held; release probability.
Copyright © 2020 the authors.