Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Levels of Resilience and Burnout in Spanish Health Personnel during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 30;17(15):5514. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155514.


The number of health workers infected with COVID-19 in Spain is one of the highest in the world. The aim of this study is to analyse posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between burnout, resilience, demographic, work and COVID-19 variables are analysed. Cross-sectional data on 1422 health workers were analysed. A total of 56.6% of health workers present symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, 58.6% anxiety disorder, 46% depressive disorder and 41.1% feel emotionally drained. The profile of a health worker with greater posttraumatic stress symptoms would be a person who works in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, in a hospital, is a woman, is concerned that a person he/she lives with may be infected, and thinks that he/she is very likely to be infected. The risk variables for anxiety and depression would be a person that is a woman, working 12- or 24-h shifts, and being worried that a family member could be infected. High scores on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are risk factors for mental health, with resilience and personal fulfilment being protective variables. Data are provided to improve preventive measures for occupational health workers.

Keywords: COVID-19; anxiety; burnout; depression; health personnel; posttraumatic stress disorder; resilience.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / psychology*
  • Betacoronavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Burnout, Professional / psychology*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / psychology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Female
  • Health Personnel / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / psychology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / virology
  • Resilience, Psychological*
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology*