Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are primary, laboratory confirmed bloodstream infections in patients with a central line within 48 h of symptom onset. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a more specific term used when the cause of infection has been confirmed by catheter tip cultures. CLABSIs and CRBSIs occur as a result of bacteraemia originating from intravenous catheters. Bloodstream infections are associated with increased length of stay, mortality and increased cost in treatment. The ability of Curos™, a disinfecting cap for needleless connectors of vascular access lines, to prevent bloodstream infections was considered by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as part of the Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme (MTEP). Curos is a single-use device that contains a foam that is impregnated with 70% isopropyl alcohol; use of Curos is claimed to avoid the need to manually disinfect needleless connectors. Curos disinfection caps may contribute to the prevention of CLABSIs and CRBSIs as part of a bundle of infection prevention processes; however, the evidence for Curos is limited in both quantity and quality and may not be generalisable to National Health Service (NHS) practice. Therefore, the guidance published by NICE in May 2019 recommended further research to address uncertainties regarding the clinical benefits of using Curos.