Energy Intake and Satiety Responses of Eggs for Breakfast in Overweight and Obese Adults-A Crossover Study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Aug 3;17(15):5583. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155583.


The type of food eaten for breakfast may determine the amount of food consumed at the next meal. This may be important when considering dietary advice for overweight and obese individuals who are trying to lose weight. The aim of the study was to investigate the energy intake and subjective sensations of hunger using a visual analogue scale (VAS) of a breakfast meal of eggs compared with a breakfast meal of cereal in overweight Australian adults. In a cross-over study, participants attended the University of South Australia's Clinical Trial Facility on two separate days, one week apart. On each day participants consumed one of two isoenergetic breakfasts (1800 kJ), either eggs and toast or cereal with milk and orange juice. Fifty overweight or obese participants, 44 ± 21 years, 86 ± 14 kg, with a body mass index (BMI) of 31 ± 4 kg/m2 completed both study visits. Energy intake following the egg breakfast was significantly reduced compared with the cereal breakfast (4518 vs. 5283 kJ, p = 0.001). BMI and gender were unrelated to these effects. The sensation of hunger was less after the egg breakfast (p = 0.028 for diet by time interaction) and returned more quickly after the cereal breakfast. There were no effects of gender or age. Energy intake was reduced at an ad libitum lunch meal 4 hours after a breakfast meal containing eggs. The findings suggest that satiety responses of overweight and obese are not different to non-obese participants as our study confirms findings from studies conducted in different populations. Determining which foods may help overweight and obese individuals manage their food intake is important for diet planning.

Keywords: breakfast; eggs; energy intake; obesity; overweight.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Australia
  • Breakfast*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Eggs
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Obesity*
  • Overweight
  • Satiation
  • Satiety Response*