We believe that many of our readers will appreciate having some familiarity with the procedures described in this manuscript. For those who have had difficulty in deciding whether the need for diagnosis justifies the risk of a procedure, this perspective will shed new light on the problem. It is appropriate to warn our readers that complete unanimity on several points is not yet evident. For example, the indications for flexible bronchoscopy, by whom the procedure should be done, and even more specific technical aspects are questions not completely resolved. However, this article is not an effort to instruct anyone in how to do the procedure. Rather, it is an effort to acquaint our readers with progress in the field. With that in mind, we are confident that the remaining questions will be answered on the basis of the training, experience, and, ultimately, the good judgment of all the physicians involved.