Quantification of the relative impairment in actions of insulin on hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose uptake in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Metabolism. 1988 Jan;37(1):15-21. doi: 10.1016/0026-0495(88)90023-6.

Abstract

In non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), both liver and peripheral tissues are resistant to insulin, but the relative severity and contribution of these abnormalities to fasting hyperglycemia are poorly understood. We, therefore, determined the dose-response characteristics for insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (GP) and stimulation of peripheral glucose uptake (GU) in 14 NIDDM subjects and 14 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers (NV) using the glucose clamp sequential insulin infusion technique along with isotopic estimation of glucose flux. Postabsorptive rates of both GP (94 +/- 7 v 72 +/- 2 mg/M2/min in NV, P less than .01) and GU (88 +/- 5 v 72 +/- 2 in NV, P less than .01) were significantly increased in NIDDM subjects. The ED50 (half-maximally effective plasma insulin concentration) in NIDDM subjects for suppression of GP (64 +/- 14 microU/mL) and stimulation of GU (118 +/- 20 microU/mL were both increased more than twofold above normal (26 +/- 2 and 58 +/- 5 microU/mL, respectively, both P less than .01) and were significantly correlated with one another (r = .68, P less than .01). Although GP could be totally suppressed in the NIDDM subjects, their maximal GU was reduced 30% (287 +/- 20 v 372 +/- 15 mg/m2/min in NV, P less than .01). Nevertheless, at all physiologically relevant plasma insulin concentrations studied, there was comparable impairment in GP and GU responses. Moreover, fasting plasma glucose concentrations in NIDDM subjects were highly correlated with their increased basal rates of GP (r = .81, P less than .005) but not with their reduced GU.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Glucose / biosynthesis
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Glucose