Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Aug 4;21(15):5572. doi: 10.3390/ijms21155572.


Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of carcinoma worldwide. BCC development is the result of a complex interaction between environmental, phenotypic and genetic factors. However, despite the progress in the field, BCC biology and mechanisms of resistance against systemic treatments have been poorly investigated. The aim of the present review is to provide a revision of BCC histological and molecular features, including microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation, with a specific focus on the molecular basis of BCC systemic therapies. Papers from the last ten years regarding BCC genetic and phenotypic alterations, as well as the mechanism of resistance against hedgehog pathway inhibitors vismodegib and sonidegib were included. The involvement of miRNAs in BCC resistance to systemic therapies is emerging as a new field of knowledge.

Keywords: basal cell carcinoma; genetic; hedgehog pathway inhibitors; microRNA; sonidegib; treatment; vismodegib.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anilides / therapeutic use
  • Biphenyl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics*
  • Hedgehog Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Hedgehog Proteins / genetics*
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • Pyridines / therapeutic use


  • Anilides
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • HhAntag691
  • MicroRNAs
  • Pyridines
  • sonidegib