Paclitaxel Drug-Coated Balloon Angioplasty Suppresses Progression and Inflammation of Experimental Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2020 Jun 10;5(7):685-695. doi: 10.1016/j.jacbts.2020.04.007. eCollection 2020 Jul.


Paclitaxel drug-coated balloons (DCBs) reduce restenosis, but their overall safety has recently raised concerns. This study hypothesized that DCBs could lessen inflammation and reduce plaque progression. Using 25 rabbits with cholesterol feeding- and balloon injury-induced lesions, DCB-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), plain PTA, or sham-PTA (balloon insertion without inflation) was investigated using serial intravascular near-infrared fluorescence-optical coherence tomography and serial intravascular ultrasound. In these experiments, DCB-PTA reduced inflammation and plaque burden in nonobstructive lesions compared with PTA or sham-PTA. These findings indicated the potential for DCBs to serve safely as regional anti-atherosclerosis therapy.

Keywords: 2D, 2-dimensional; CSA, cross-sectional area; DCB, drug-coated balloon; EEM, external elastic membrane; IVUS, intravascular ultrasound; NIRF, near-infrared fluorescence; OCT, optical coherence tomography; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; PAV, percent atheroma volume; PB, plaque burden; PTA, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; PTX, paclitaxel; TAV, total atheroma volume; atherosclerosis; drug-coated balloon; imaging; inflammation; peripheral arterial disease.