Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2021 Jan;40(1):136-147. doi: 10.1177/0960327120946470. Epub 2020 Aug 7.


In this study, the impact of standard 2.45 GHz radio frequency source (averaged whole-body specific absorption rate 0.01 W kg-1 24 h-1 daily for 40 consecutive days) on the liver of Wistar female rats was investigated. The rats were randomly divided into control and Wi-Fi-exposed groups. At the end of the exposure, liver samples were dissected from rats. Rats' livers were inspected through the evaluation of some oxidative stress parameters and the evaluation of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels as well as through the molecular investigation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Histopathological examination in addition to ultrastructure examination was also performed. The present data revealed that Wi-Fi exposure leads to severe oxidative stress in the rat liver. Furthermore, Wi-Fi exposure resulted in deleterious effects in the liver function and alters its molecular structure. Moreover, severe histological and ultrastructural alterations are reported in the hepatic tissues points to hepatotoxic effects induced by Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, care must be taken when using Wi-Fi emitting devices due to their severe impact on the liver. Public awareness of the need to decrease exposure time and increase the distance from Wi-Fi exposure sources must be raised wherever possible.

Keywords: FTIR; Liver; Wi-Fi; apoptosis; electromagnetic radiation; oxidative stress; ultrastructure.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants
  • Female
  • Liver / radiation effects*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Wireless Technology*


  • Antioxidants