Focal hepatosplenic candidiasis has been recognized with increasing frequency in recent years. We reviewed the cases of eight patients seen between 1982 and 1985, and information on 60 patients whose cases have been reported in the world literature. The characteristics of focal hepatosplenic candidiasis include persistent fever in a neutropenic patient whose leukocyte count is returning to normal, often coupled with abdominal pain; an elevated alkaline phosphatase level; and less commonly, rebound leukocytosis. The characteristic "bull's eye" lesions seen with hepatic ultrasound examination or computed tomography generally are not detectable until neutrophil recovery has occurred. Diagnosis can be established only by biopsy evidence of yeasts or pseudohyphae in the granulomatous lesions. Cultures are frequently negative, however, especially in patients who have been pretreated with antifungal agents. We review the evolving nature of hepatosplenic candidiasis, focusing on diagnosis and treatment.