An updated overview of spectrum of gluten-related disorders: clinical and diagnostic aspects

BMC Gastroenterol. 2020 Aug 6;20(1):258. doi: 10.1186/s12876-020-01390-0.


The incidence of gluten-related disorders (GRDs) continues to increase and its global prevalence is estimated at approximately 5% of the population. Celiac disease (CD), dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), gluten ataxia (GA), wheat allergy (WA), and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are the five major GRDs that present with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of GRDs can be challenging because the typical and atypical clinical manifestations of the GRDs overlap. In this review, the current definitions of gluten-related disorders, focusing on their clinical features, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are presented. We concluded that GRDs are usually diagnosed using a combination of clinical features, serological tests, and histopathological findings. Treatment usually involves dietary modification.

Keywords: Ataxia; Celiac disease; Diagnosis; Diet, gluten-free; Gluten; Hypersensitivity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Celiac Disease* / diagnosis
  • Celiac Disease* / epidemiology
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Glutens / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Prevalence
  • Wheat Hypersensitivity* / diagnosis


  • Glutens