Biotechnological re-cycling of apple by-products: A reservoir model to produce a dietary supplement fortified with biogenic phenolic compounds

Food Chem. 2021 Jan 30;336:127616. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127616. Epub 2020 Jul 26.


This study is an example of apple by-products (AP) recycling through a designed fermentation by selected autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum AFI5 and Lactobacillus fabifermentans ALI6 used singly or as binary cultures with the selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae AYI7. Compared to Raw-, Unstarted- and Chemically Acidified-AP, Fermented-AP promoted the highest levels of total and insoluble dietary fibers, DPPH scavenging capacity, and free phenolics. The binary culture of L. plantarum AFI5 and S. cerevisiae AYI7 had the best effect on the bioavailability phenolic compounds as resulted by the LC-MS/MS validated method. The accumulation of phenolic acids derivatives highlighted the microbial metabolism during AP fermentation. Bio-converted phenolics were likely responsible for the increased DPPH scavenging capacity. The potential health-promoting effects of Fermented-AP were highlighted using Caco-2 cells. With variations among single and binary cultures, fermented-AP counteracted the inflammatory processes and the effects of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells, and preserved the integrity of tight junctions.

Keywords: Apple by-products; DPPH radical scavenging capacity; Fermentation; Phenolic compounds; Recycling.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / analysis
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Batch Cell Culture Techniques
  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillus / growth & development
  • Lactobacillus / metabolism
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Malus / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / chemistry*
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / growth & development
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Phenols
  • Reactive Oxygen Species