Aspergillus endocarditis (AE) accounts for a-quarter of all fungal endocarditis, mainly in immunocompromised hosts prior to heart-valve surgery with high mortality, even with treatment. Herein, we report a rare case of AE in a diabetic 60-year-old woman with a history of redo mitral valve prosthesis suspecious of acute endocarditis. She underwent second redo surgical mitral valve replacement in combination with mechanical aortic valve replacement. Blood cultures were negative. The explanted valve and vegetation were subjected to identification. Grown colonies were identified as Aspergillus flavus, based on conventional and molecular methods. Despite the administration of liposomal amphotericin B and improvement in her general condition shortly after initiation of therapy, the patient passed away. As AE is a late consequence of redo prosthetic valve replacement, extended follow-up, early diagnosis, repeating valve-replacement surgeries, and timely selective antifungal treatments are warranted.
Keywords: Aspergillus; antifungal; fungal endocarditis; prosthetic valve replacement.
© 2020 Jalalian et al.