Characteristics, risk factors and outcomes among the first consecutive 1096 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Kuwait

EClinicalMedicine. 2020 Jul 4;24:100448. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100448. eCollection 2020 Jul.

Abstract

Background: In Kuwait, prior to the first case of COVID-19 being reported in the country, mass screening of incoming travelers from countries with known outbreaks was performed and resulted in the first identified cases in the country. All COVID-19 cases at the time and subsequently after, were transferred to a single center, Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital, where the patients received standardized investigations and treatments. The objective of this study was to characterize the demographics, clinical manifestations, and outcomes in this unique patient population.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted between 24th February 2020 and 20th April 2020. All consecutive patients in the entire State of Kuwait diagnosed with COVID-19 according to WHO guidelines and admitted to Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital were included. Patients received standardized investigations and treatments. Multivariable analysis was used to determine the associations between risk factors and outcomes (admission to intensive care and/or mortality).

Findings: Of 1096 patients, the median age was 41 years and 81% of patients were male. Most patients were asymptomatic on admission (46.3%), of whom 35 later developed symptoms, and 59.7% had no signs of infection. Only 3.6% of patients required an ICU admission and 1.7% were dead at the study's cutoff date. On multivariable analysis, the risk factors found to be significantly associated with admission to intensive care were age above 50 years old, a qSOFA score above 0, smoking, elevated CRP and elevated procalcitonin levels. Asthma, smoking and elevated procalcitonin levels correlated significantly with mortality in our cohort.

Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical outcomes; Risk factors; SARS-CoV-2.