Revisiting Anchor Epicanthoplasty in Mild to Moderate Asian Epicanthal Folds: A Clinicopathological Study

Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2021 Feb;45(1):181-190. doi: 10.1007/s00266-020-01901-0. Epub 2020 Aug 6.


Background: To assess the epicanthal fold (EF), eyelid, eyebrow, scar, and patients' satisfaction after anchor epicanthoplasty and upper blepharoplasty and histopathologically compare Asian epicanthal fold skin with non-Asian counterpart.

Methods: Asian Iranians with grade 2 and 3 EF were included. Photographs were taken before and at least 12 months after the surgery. Photoanalysis included EF grade, inter-canthal distance (ICD), margin reflex distance 1 (MRD1), tarsal plate show (TPS), brow fat span (BFS), and eyebrow height. Manchester scar scale score (5-28) and patients' satisfaction score (0-100) were documented. The most medial skin of 5 Asian and 5 non-Asian subjects was histologically compared for the thickness and elastic fiber density and morphology.

Results: Included were 89 patients (178 eyelids) with a mean age of 31.6 years and follow-up of 13.1 months. Mean ICD significantly decreased by 3.5 mm (shortening ratio of 9.7%). All grade 2 and almost half of the grade 3 EF disappeared. Significant postoperative increase in mean MRD1 (0.3 mm) and TPS (1.1-1.4 mm) and decrease in BFS (3.3-3.6 mm) and eyebrow height (1.7-3.4 mm) were observed. Revision rate of epicanthoplasty was 7.3%. Mean satisfaction and scar scores were 97.1 and 5.4, respectively. Histopathologically, Asian and non-Asian medial upper eyelid skin was not significantly different.

Conclusion: Anchor epicanthoplasty eliminated grade 2 and improved grade 3 EF with a high satisfaction and negligible scar. Simultaneous upper blepharoplasty significantly increased MRD1 and TPS and decreased eyebrow height. EF skin was not histologically different from non-Asians.

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Keywords: Anchor epicanthoplasty; Asian blepharoplasty; Double eyelid; Epicanthoplasty.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asian People
  • Blepharoplasty*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Eyelids* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome