Cardiometabolic risk factors in Venezuela. The EVESCAM study: a national cross-sectional survey in adults

Prim Care Diabetes. 2021 Feb;15(1):106-114. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2020.07.006. Epub 2020 Aug 5.


Background: No previous study in Venezuela and few in the Region of the Americas have reported national cardiometabolic health data.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and distribution of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) in adults of Venezuela.

Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional, and randomized cluster sampling national study was designed to recruit 4454 adults with 20 years or older from the eight regions of the country from July 2014 to January 2017. Sociodemographic, clinical, physical activity, nutritional, and psychological questionnaires; anthropometrics, blood pressure, and biochemical measurements were obtained. The results were weighted by gender, age, and regions.

Results: Data from 3414 participants (77% of recruited), 52.2% female, mean age of 41.2 ± 15.8 years, were analyzed. CMRF adjusted-prevalence were: diabetes (12.3%), prediabetes (34.9%), hypertension (34.1%), obesity (24.6%), overweight (34.4%), abdominal obesity (47.6%), underweight (4.4%), hypercholesterolemia (19.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (22.7%), low HDL-cholesterol (63.2%), high LDL-c (20.5%), daily consumption of fruits (20.9%) and vegetables (30.0%), insufficient physical activity (35.2%), anxiety (14.6%) and depression (3.2%) symptoms, current smoker (11.7%), and high (≥ 20%) 10-year fatal cardiovascular risk (14.0%). CMRF prevalence varied according to gender, age and region of residence.

Conclusions: Cardiometabolic risk factors are highly prevalent in Venezuelan adults. This situation can be affected by the severe socio-economic crisis in the country. The joint action of different stakeholders to implement public health strategies for the prevention and treatment of these risk factors in Venezuela is urgently needed.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Diabetes; Dyslipidemia; Obesity; Risk factors; Tobacco; Venezuela.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiometabolic Risk Factors*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Venezuela / epidemiology