Vitamin D3 and K2 and their potential contribution to reducing the COVID-19 mortality rate

Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct;99:286-290. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.080. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Abstract

The world is desperately seeking for a sustainable solution to combat the coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Recent research indicated that optimizing Vitamin D blood levels could offer a solution approach that promises a heavily reduced fatality rate as well as solving the public health problem of counteracting the general vitamin D deficiency. This paper dived into the immunoregulatory effects of supplementing Vitamin D3 by elaborating a causal loop diagram. Together with D3, vitamin K2 and magnesium should be supplemented to prevent long-term health risks. Follow up clinical randomized trials are required to verify the current circumstantial evidence.

Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Immunology; Mortality rate; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Betacoronavirus / physiology*
  • Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage*
  • Cholecalciferol / blood
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / mortality
  • Coronavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Pandemics* / prevention & control
  • Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality
  • Pneumonia, Viral / prevention & control
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy
  • Vitamin K 2 / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin K 2 / blood

Substances

  • Immunologic Factors
  • Vitamin K 2
  • Cholecalciferol

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2