Diabetic ketoacidosis: A consensus statement of the Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists (AMD), Italian Society of Diabetology (SID), Italian Society of Endocrinology and Pediatric Diabetoloy (SIEDP)

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020 Sep 24;30(10):1633-1644. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2020.06.006. Epub 2020 Jun 18.


Background and aim: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious medical emergency once considered typical of type 1 diabetes (T1DM), but now reported to occur in type 2 and GDM patients as well. DKA can cause severe complications and even prove fatal. The aim of our study was to review recent international and national guidelines on diagnosis, clinical presentation and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, to provide practical clinical recommendations.

Methods and results: Electronic databases (MEDLINE (via PUB Med), Scopus, Cochrane library were searched for relevant literature. Most international and national guidelines indicate the same accurate flow chart to diagnose, to evaluate from clinical and laboratory point of view, and treat diabetic ketoacidosis.

Conclusion: Prompt diagnosis, rapid execution of laboratory analysis and correct treatment are imperative to reduce the mortality related to diabetic ketoacidosis. These recommendations are designed to help healthcare professionals reduce the frequency and burden of DKA.

Keywords: Diabetic ketoacidosis; Euglycemic ketoacidosis; Ketoacidosis complications; Ketoacidosis management.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / mortality
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / therapy*
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine / standards
  • Endocrinology / standards*
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors