Rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ravaging the globe. Since its first report in December 2019, COVID-19 cases have exploded to over 14 million as of July 2020, claiming more than 600,000 lives. Implementing fast and widespread diagnostic tests is paramount to contain COVID-19, given the current lack of an effective therapeutic or vaccine. This review focuses on a broad description of currently available diagnostic tests to detect either the virus (SARS-CoV-2) or virus-induced immune responses. We specifically explain the working mechanisms of these tests and compare their analytical performance. These analyses will assist in selecting most effective tests for a given application, for example, epidemiology or global pandemic research, population screening, hospital-based testing, home-based and point-of-care testing, and therapeutic trials. Finally, we lay out the shortcomings of certain tests and future needs.
Keywords: Analytical Chemistry; Diagnostic Equipment; Infection Control in Health Technology; Virology.
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.