Background: A large number of studies have evaluated the pharmacology, safety, and/or efficacy of bismuth subsalicylate for the relief of common gastrointestinal symptoms, diarrhea and vomiting due to acute gastroenteritis. In addition, short-term (48 h) medication with bismuth subsalicylate is known to be effective against infectious gastroenteritis such as travelers' diarrhea.
Aims: Previous studies have documented the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effects of bismuth subsalicylate against a variety of pathogenic gastrointestinal bacteria. However, meta-analyses of the clinical efficacy of bismuth subsalicylate for both prevention and treatment of travelers' diarrhea have not yet been published.
Methods: A total of 14 clinical studies (from 1970s to 2007) comprised the core data used in this assessment of efficacy of bismuth subsalicylate against infectious (including travelers') diarrhea. These studies allowed for statistical meta-analyses regarding prevention (three travelers' diarrhea studies) and treatment of infectious diarrhea (11 studies [five travelers' diarrhea]).
Results: The results show that subjects treated with bismuth subsalicylate for up to 21 days have 3.5 times greater odds of preventing travelers' diarrhea compared with placebo (95% CI 2.1, 5.9; p < 0.001). In addition, subjects with infectious diarrhea treated with bismuth subsalicylate had 3.7 times greater odds of diarrhea relief (recorded on diaries as subjective symptomatic improvement) compared to those receiving placebo (95% CI 2.1, 6.3; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that bismuth subsalicylate can be beneficial for those at risk or affected by food and waterborne diarrheal disease such as traveler's (infectious) diarrhea, and may decrease the risk of inappropriate antibiotic utilization.
Keywords: Bismuth compounds; Infectious diarrhea; Infectious gastroenteritis; Traveler’s diarrhea; Viral gastroenteritis.