Effectiveness of stereotype threat interventions: A meta-analytic review

J Appl Psychol. 2021 Jun;106(6):921-949. doi: 10.1037/apl0000770. Epub 2020 Aug 10.


This meta-analytic review examined the effectiveness of stereotype threat interventions (STIs). Integrating the identity engagement model (Cohen, Purdie-Vaughns, & Garcia, 2012) with the process model of stereotype threat (Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008), we categorized STIs into 3 types: belief-based, identity-based, and resilience-based STIs. Combining 251 effect sizes from 181 experiments, we found an overall effect size of d = 0.44, with the intervention group outperforming the control group. Subgroup analyses showed that although all 3 types of STIs helped counter stereotype threat, primary-appraisal-based (i.e., belief-based and identity-based) STIs were more effective than secondary-appraisal-based (i.e., resilience-based) STIs. We also traced the theoretical roots of 11 specific intervention strategies and showed that 9 of them yielded significant effect sizes. Moreover, we found evidence of publication bias regarding some but not all intervention types. These findings' theoretical and practical implications, as well as methodological issues and future research directions for the STI literature, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Stereotyping*