Objective: Mental skills training (MST) in surgical education varies greatly in quality and outcomes. This systematic review assessed the effectiveness of MST on surgical trainee performance in simulated and operating room (OR) settings.
Design: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Peer-reviewed studies published in the English language between January 1, 2000 and March 1, 2020 were considered for inclusion. Articles that did not study surgical residents, assess surgical performance as an outcome, or report findings were excluded. Study characteristics, methodologies, and outcomes were qualitatively analyzed. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) was used to measure the quality of the studies, and the Oxford quality scoring system for risk of bias ratings.
Results: Seven randomized controlled trials met study inclusion criteria; interventions were mental practice, relaxation exercises, action observation, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Targeted interventions based on mental practice, relaxation exercises, and MBSR significantly improved surgical performance in four (57%) studies. Risk of bias was low for all included studies, and quality of evidence was moderate for both simulated and OR performance.
Conclusions: Mental practice, relaxation, and mindfulness training improved simulation and OR performance for surgical residents. There was insufficient evidence to support other MST interventions or the intermediate- and long-term efficacy of MST.
Keywords: graduate medical education; mental imagery; mental practice; mindfulness; surgery; surgical education.
Published by Elsevier Inc.