Niclosamide: drug repurposing for human chondrosarcoma treatment via the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

Am J Transl Res. 2020 Jul 15;12(7):3688-3701. eCollection 2020.


Poor sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs and high recurrence rates are the bottlenecks to successful chondrosarcoma treatment. Notably, niclosamide has been identified as a potential anti-cancer agent. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of niclosamide in the context of human chondrosarcoma treatment, SW1353 and CAL78 human chondrosarcoma cells were treated with various concentrations of niclosamide. The CKK-8 assay was performed to quantify cell viability. Cell proliferation was determined with crystal violet staining and colony forming assays. TUNEL and annexin V-FITC flow cytometry assays were performed to detect cell apoptosis. Wound healing and Transwell assays were conducted to evaluate migratory and invasive cell behaviors. The effect of niclosamide on the mitochondria was evaluated with the JC-1 and Seahorse Cell Mito Stress Assays. The expression of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, and β-tubulin levels were investigated by western blotting. Collectively, the data demonstrated that niclosamide inhibited cell growth and proliferation, attenuated migratory and invasive cell behaviors, and promoted apoptosis. Niclosamide is as a potent chondrosarcoma tumor inhibitor that activates the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and could be a novel therapeutic approach to treat chondrosarcoma.

Keywords: Drug repurposing; human chondrosarcoma; mitochondrial apoptosis; mitochondrial uncoupling; niclosamide; tumor inhibitor.