Current Trends in Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

Open Access J Neurol Neurosurg. 2020;12(4):86-94. Epub 2020 Jan 8.


Neurotrauma, especially Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major health concern not only for the civilian population but also for the military personnel. Currently there are no precision and regenerative therapies available for the successful treatment of TBI patients. Hence, early detection and treatment options may prevent the severity and untoward harmful effects of TBI. However, currently there are no effective biomarkers available for the rapid and robust diagnosis as well as prognosis of TBI. Several biomarkers in blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva and urine have been explored to assess the onset, progression, severity and prognosis of TBI recently. Present knowledge on the blood biomarkers including cytokines and chemokines and in vivo imaging modalities are useful to some extent to detect and treat TBI patients. Here, we review S100B, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), tau protein, and alpha spectrin II break down products regarding their usefulness as a set of reliable biomarkers for the robust diagnosis of TBI. We suggest that these biomarkers may prove very useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of TBI.

Keywords: Alpha II spectrin; Biomarkers; Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; Myelin Basic Protein; Neuron specific enolase; S100B; Tau protein; Traumatic brain injury; Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase L1.