LongAGE: defining breakpoints of genomic structural variants through optimal and memory efficient alignments of long reads

Bioinformatics. 2021 May 17;37(7):1015-1017. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa703.


Summary: Defining the precise location of structural variations (SVs) at single-nucleotide breakpoint resolution is a challenging problem due to large gaps in alignment. Previously, Alignment with Gap Excision (AGE) enabled us to define breakpoints of SVs at single-nucleotide resolution; however, AGE requires a vast amount of memory when aligning a pair of long sequences. To address this, we developed a memory-efficient implementation-LongAGE-based on the classical Hirschberg algorithm. We demonstrate an application of LongAGE for resolving breakpoints of SVs embedded into segmental duplications on Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) reads that can be longer than 10 kb. Furthermore, we observed different breakpoints for a deletion and a duplication in the same locus, providing direct evidence that such multi-allelic copy number variants (mCNVs) arise from two or more independent ancestral mutations.

Availability and implementation: LongAGE is implemented in C++ and available on Github at https://github.com/Coaxecva/LongAGE.

Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • Genomic Structural Variation*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Segmental Duplications, Genomic
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Software*