The Vectorcardiogram and the Main Dromotropic Disturbances

Curr Cardiol Rev. 2021;17(1):50-59. doi: 10.2174/1573403X16666200810105504.


Until the mid-1980s, it was believed that the vectorcardiogram (VCG) presented a greater specificity, sensitivity and accuracy in comparison to the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), in the cardiology diagnosis. Currently, the VCG still is superior to the ECG in specific situations, such as in the evaluation of myocardial infarctions when associated with intraventricular conduction disturbances, in the identification and location of accessory pathways in ventricular preexcitation, in the differential diagnosis of patterns varying from normal of electrical axis deviation, in the evaluation of particular aspects of Brugada syndrome, Brugada phenocopies, concealed form of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and zonal or fascicular blocks of the right bundle branch on right ventricular free wall.VCG allows us to analyze the presence of left septal fascicular block more accurately than ECG and in the diagnosis of the interatrial blocks and severity of some chambers enlargements. The three-dimensional spatial orientation of both the atrial and the ventricular activity provides a far more complete observation tool than the linear ECG. We believe that the ECG/VCG binomial simultaneously obtained by the technique called electro-vectorcardiography (ECG/VCG) brought a significant gain for the differential diagnosis of several pathologies. Finally, in the field of education and research, VCG provided a better and more rational tridimensional insight into the electrical phenomena that occurs spatially, and represented an important impact on the progress of electrocardiography.

Keywords: Vectorcardiogram; dromotropic disturbances; electrocardiogram; interatrial block; left septal fascicular block; ventricular preexcitation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bundle-Branch Block / diagnostic imaging*
  • Bundle-Branch Block / physiopathology
  • Electrocardiography / methods*
  • Heart Conduction System / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Conduction System / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Vectorcardiography / methods*