Development of Disordered Eating Behaviors and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Neural and Psychopathological Predictors

Biol Psychiatry. 2021 Dec 15;90(12):853-862. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.06.003. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Abstract

Background: Eating disorders are common in adolescence and are devastating and strongly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Yet little is known about their etiology, knowing which would aid in developing effective preventive measures.

Methods: Longitudinal assessments of disordered eating behaviors (DEBs)-binge-eating, purging, and dieting-and comorbid psychopathology were measured in 1386 adolescents from the IMAGEN study. Development of DEBs and associated mental health problems was investigated by comparing participants who reported symptoms at ages 16 or 19 years, but not at age 14 years, with asymptomatic control participants. Voxel-based morphometry and psychopathological differences at age 14 were investigated to identify risk factors for the development of DEBs and associated mental health problems.

Results: DEBs and depressive symptoms developed together. Emotional and behavioral problems, including symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, predated their development. Alterations in frontostriatal brain areas also predated the development of DEBs and depressive symptoms. Specifically, development of binge-eating was predicted by higher gray matter volumes in the right putamen/globus pallidus at age 14. Conversely, development of purging and depressive symptoms was predicted by lower volumes in the medial orbitofrontal, dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Lower gray matter volumes in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices mediated the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder symptoms and future purging and depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that alterations in frontal brain circuits are part of the shared etiology among eating disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and depression and highlight the importance of a transdiagnostic approach to treating these conditions.

Keywords: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Biomarkers; Conduct disorder; Depression; Eating disorders; Gray matter volume.