Aim: Differentiating appendiceal mucocele with mucinous adenocarcinoma from other pathologies before surgery is difficult. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of CT and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for differentiating mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendiceal mucocele from other pathologies.
Method: The study included 25 patients who underwent surgery for clinically diagnosed appendiceal mucoceles detected on CT at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Among these patients, 19 underwent FDG-PET/CT preoperatively. We compared features of the CT imaging findings and maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax ) detected by FDG-PET/CT between mucocele with mucinous adenocarcinoma and other pathologies.
Results: A total of 13 men (52%) and 12 women (48%) were included in this study, with a median age of 65 years (range 34-83). There were six patients (24%) with pathologically confirmed mucinous adenocarcinoma, 15 patients (60%) with appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and four patients (16%) with simple mucocele caused by chronic inflammation. On the CT findings, wall irregularity was the only significant feature for the two groups in this study (83.3% vs 0.0%, P < 0.01). There was a significant difference in the SUVmax levels on PET/CT between the two groups (100.0% vs 20.0%, P < 0.01).
Conclusion: Distinguishing between mucocele with mucinous adenocarcinoma and other pathologies using imaging modalities is challenging. Our results suggest that wall irregularity on CT and elevated SUVmax on PET/CT are useful factors that can be employed for such discrimination.
Keywords: FDG-PET/CT; appendiceal mucocele; mucinous adenocarcinoma; mucinous appendiceal neoplasm.
© 2020 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.