Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Oat Beta-Glucan Regulated Fatty Acid Profiles along the Gut-Liver-Brain Axis of Mice Fed with High Fat Diet and Demonstrated Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2020 Sep;64(18):e2000566. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.202000566. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Abstract

Scope: This study takes a novel approach to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of prebiotic oat beta-glucan (OAT) and the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) against high-fat diets (HFD) by examining the fatty acid profiles in the gut-liver-brain axis.

Method and results: HFD-fed C57BL/6N mice are supplemented with OAT and/or LGG for 17 weeks. Thereafter, mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics is employed to quantify short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and oxidized PUFA products in the tissues. Acetate levels are suppressed by HFD in all tissues but reversed in the brain and liver by supplementation with LGG, OAT, or LGG + OAT, and in cecum content by LGG. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio is elevated by HFD in all tissues but is lowered by LGG and OAT in the cecum and the brain, and by LGG + OAT in the brain, suggesting the anti-inflammatory property of LGG and OAT. LGG and OAT synergistically, but not individually attenuate the increase in non-enzymatic oxidized products, indicating their synbiotic antioxidant property.

Conclusion: The regulation of the fatty acid profiles by LGG and OAT, although incomplete, but demonstrates their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials in the gut-liver-brain axis against HFD.

Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; fatty acid metabolism; hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; isoprostane; oat beta-glucan.