Objectives: To evaluate electrophysiological findings among patients with vestibular migraine (VM) and to compare them with those of patients suffering from definite Ménière disease (MD) without migraine.
Materials and methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients suffering from VM were enrolled; all subjects were selected according to the criteria proposed by the Bàràny Society for Neuro-otology. Each patient underwent a careful otological and neurotological examination. After completing a questionnaire regarding migraine and vertigo complaints, they were assessed by audiometric testing, video head impulse test (vHIT), and electrocochleography (EcochG). Data were compared with those of 21 patients who fulfilled the criteria for definite MD.
Results: 52.38% of the patients with VM suffered from at least two episodes of migraine per week, with 42.85% of the subjects complaining of migraines lasting ≥24 hours. 57.14% of the patients reported at least four episodes of vertigo per month, whereas 61.9% suffered from symptoms of chronic unsteadiness. No significant difference (p=0.76) resulted from the comparison of vHIT gain between patients with VM and MD. Eleven out of 21 patients (52.38%) with definite MD presented at least one ear with SP/AP >0.4, differently from patients with VM who exhibited SP/AP values suggestive of endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in only three cases (14.28%).
Conclusion: The present study found a higher proportion of abnormal EcochG in MD than in VM (p=0.02) without any significant difference in the vHIT gain. On the basis of our findings, the identification of EH in some patients with VM cannot be definitely related to the same pathway that triggers MD symptoms. Future research may help in better understanding whether abnormal EcochG findings can predict the occurrence of MD among patients with VM.