'Presumptively Initiating Vaccines and Optimizing Talk with Motivational Interviewing' (PIVOT with MI) trial: a protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a clinician vaccine communication intervention

BMJ Open. 2020 Aug 11;10(8):e039299. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039299.


Introduction: A key contributor to underimmunisation is parental refusal or delay of vaccines due to vaccine concerns. Many clinicians lack confidence in communicating with vaccine-hesitant parents (VHP) and perceive that their discussions will do little to change parents' minds. Improving clinician communication with VHPs is critical to increasing childhood vaccine uptake.

Methods and analysis: We describe the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial to test the impact of a novel, multifaceted clinician vaccine communication strategy on child immunisation status. The trial will be conducted in 24 primary care practices in two US states (Washington and Colorado). The strategy is called Presumptively Initiating Vaccines and Optimizing Talk with Motivational Interviewing (PIVOT with MI), and involves clinicians initiating the vaccine conversation with all parents of young children using the presumptive format, and among those parents who resist vaccines, pivoting to using MI. Our primary outcome is the immunisation status of children of VHPs at 19 months, 0 day of age expressed as the percentage of days underimmunised from birth to 19 months for 22 doses of eight vaccines recommended during this interval. Secondary outcomes include clinician experience communicating with VHPs, parent visit experience and clinician adherence to the PIVOT with MI communication strategy.

Ethics and dissemination: This study is approved by the following institutional review boards: Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, Washington State Institutional Review Board and Swedish Health Services Institutional Review Board. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed manuscripts and conference presentations.

Trial registration number: NCT03885232.

Keywords: community child health; paediatrics; public health.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Colorado
  • Communication
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Motivational Interviewing*
  • Parents
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines*
  • Washington


  • Vaccines

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03885232