In the search for highly effective modulators addressing ABCG2-mediated MDR, 23 pyrimidines were synthesized and biologically assessed. Seven derivatives with (a) nitrogen- and/or halogen-containing residue(s) had extraordinary potencies against ABCG2 (IC50 < 150 nM). The compounds competitively inhibited ABCG2-mediated Hoechst 33342 transport but were not substrates of ABCG2. The most potent MDR reverser, compound 19, concentration-dependently increased SN-38-mediated cancer cell death at 11 nM (EC50), time-dependently doubled SN-38 toxicity in a period of 7 days at 10 nM, and half-maximally accelerated cell death combined with SN-38 at 17 nM. No induction of ABCG2 was observed. Furthermore, 11 pyrimidines were revealed as triple ABCB1/ABCC1/ABCG2 inhibitors. Five possessed IC50 values below 10 μM against each transporter, classifying them as some of the 50 most potent multitarget ABC transporter inhibitors. The most promising representative, compound 37, reversed ABCB1-, ABCC1-, and ABCG2-mediated MDR, making it one of the three most potent ABC transporter inhibitors and reversers of ABC transporters-mediated MDR.