Purpose of review: The objectives of this literature review are to appraise current approaches and assess new technologies that have been utilized for evaluation and feedback of residents, with focus on surgical trainees.
Recent findings: In 1999, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education introduced the Milestone system as a tool for summative evaluation. The organization allows individual program autonomy on how evaluation and feedback are performed. In the past, questionnaire evaluations and informal verbal feedback were employed. However, with the advent of technology, they have taken a different shape in the form of crowdsourcing, mobile platforms, and simulation. Limited data is available on new methods but studies show promise citing low cost and positive impact on resident education. No one "best approach" exists for evaluation and feedback. However, it is apparent that a multimodal approach that is based on the ACGME Milestones can be effective and aid in guiding programs.
Keywords: Best practices; Feedback; Formative evaluation; Medical education; Summative evaluation; Technology.