MN1 C-Terminal Truncation Syndrome

In: GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993.


Clinical characteristics: Individuals with MN1 C-terminal truncation (MCTT) syndrome have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, severe expressive language delay, dysmorphic facial features (midface hypoplasia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, exophthalmia, short upturned nose, and small low-set ears), and distinctive findings on brain imaging (including perisylvian polymicrogyria and atypical rhombencephalosynapsis). Mild-to-moderate prelingual hearing loss (usually bilateral, conductive, and/or sensorineural) is common. Generalized seizures (observed in the minority of individuals) are responsive to anti-seizure medication. There is an increased risk for craniosynostosis and, thus, increased intracranial pressure. To date, 25 individuals with MCTT syndrome have been identified.

Diagnosis/testing: No consensus clinical diagnostic criteria for MCTT syndrome have been published. The diagnosis is established in a proband with suggestive findings and a heterozygous pathogenic variant in MN1 identified by molecular genetic testing.

Management: Treatment of manifestations: Multidisciplinary specialists to help manage developmental delay / intellectual disability, feeding issues, seizures, hearing loss, and speech and language needs, especially alternative communication.

Surveillance: Routine follow up by multidisciplinary specialists per their recommendations.

Genetic counseling: MCTT syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder typically caused by a de novo MN1 pathogenic variant. The risk to the sibs of a proband depends on the genetic status of the proband's parents: if the MN1 pathogenic variant found in the proband cannot be detected in the leukocyte DNA of either parent, the recurrence risk to sibs is estimated to be slightly greater than that of the general population because of the possibility of parental somatic/germline mosaicism. Prenatal testing for a pregnancy at increased risk and preimplantation genetic testing are possible once the MN1 pathogenic variant has been identified in an affected family member.

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