From 1976 to 1986, reported Salmonella enteritidis infections increased more than sixfold in the northeastern United States. From January 1985 to May 1987, sixty-five foodborne outbreaks of S enteritidis were reported in the Northeast that were associated with 2119 cases and 11 deaths. Twenty-seven (77%) of the 35 outbreaks with identified food vehicles were caused by Grade A shell eggs or foods that contained such eggs. National data from 1973 to 1984 showed that S enteritidis outbreaks (44%) were more frequently associated with egg-containing foods than were outbreaks of other Salmonella serotypes (15%). Reflecting the geographic distribution of human illness, cultures of bulk raw eggs from pasteurization plants in the Northeast more frequently yielded S enteritidis (10%) than did eggs from other regions of the United States (0%). The epidemic rise in S enteritidis infections due to Grade A shell eggs is unlike past problems of salmonellosis associated with cracked or soiled eggs and raises the possibility of trans-ovarian contamination of eggs with S enteritidis. New techniques may therefore be needed to control resurgent egg-associated salmonellosis in the United States.