Prostate-Specific Antigen Density: A Measurement to Differentiate Benign Hypertrophy of Prostate from Prostate Carcinoma

J Lab Physicians. 2020 Mar;12(1):44-48. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1714195. Epub 2020 Jul 24.


Background Determination of isolated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in asymptomatic individuals has not demonstrated sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be useful in the routine evaluation of prostate disease. To enhance the accuracy of serum PSA we have used a proportion of serum PSA and prostate volume, which we refer to as prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD). Prostate volume in this study was calculated using transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Materials and Methods A total of 106 patients with prostatic disease clinically confined to the prostate glands were evaluated. Results and Observation The mean PSAD for prostate cancer was 0.15 ± 0.01 while that for benign hypertrophy of the prostate (BPH) was 0.11 ± 0.02 ( p < 0.05). Significant difference ( p < 0.05) was noted in the prostate volume in these two groups with the mean prostate volume measured by TRUS in the BPH to be 53.85 ± 9.71 mL compared with 58.14 ± 7.48 mL in the carcinoma. PSA density of 0.13 ng/mL can be used as a cutoff for the individual in our set-up who should go for prostate biopsy with sensitivity and specificity of over 90%. Conclusion These results suggest that PSAD may be useful in distinguishing BPH and prostate cancer.

Keywords: benign hypertrophy; carcinoma; prostate-specific antigen density; transrectal ultrasonography.

Grant support

Funding This study was funded by an intramural research grant received from the North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical sciences (NEIGRIHMS), Shillong (NEIGR-Esst-I/7/2016).