Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating infant disease characterized by severe intestinal necrosis, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but appears to be multifactorial and highly associated with immaturity of gastrointestinal tract and immature innate-immune system. Breast-milk is effective strategy to protect infants against NEC. This study is using a NEC rat model to investigate the pathological mechanism of NEC involved intestinal-damages, and the therapeutic mechanism of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) on NEC rats; also using cell model to investigate the effects of SHMOs on colon-epithelial cells (Caco-2) in-vitro. Extraction and characterization of SHMOs from breast milk, establishment of a NEC rat model, histopathological analysis and mast cell accounting of the terminal ileum were taken; The levels of DPPI, TLR4, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-2/9 and glutathione were measured using various methods. Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with SHMOs and cultured with LPS, histamine, chymase or DPPI, cell viabilities and mitochondrial membrane potential were examined; flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle. The accumulation of mast cells was found in the ileum of NEC rats, but prohibited by SHMOs treatment; the increased levels of TLR4, DPPI, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-2/9 in NEC ileum were suppressed by SHMOs in-vivo. SHMOs prevented Caco-2 cells from LPS, histamine, chymase induced damages by surviving cell viability, regulating G0/G1 and S phase in cell cycles, and increasing mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings provide a new insight into the pharmacological mechanism of SHMOs treatment for NEC and suggest that SHMOs needs well attention for therapeutic aims.
Keywords: DPPI; Human breast milk oligosaccharides; Intestinal Epithelium; Mast cell; Necrotizing enterocolitis; TLR4.
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