Affective and psychotic symptoms associated with anabolic steroid use

Am J Psychiatry. 1988 Apr;145(4):487-90. doi: 10.1176/ajp.145.4.487.


To assess the frequency of affective and psychotic symptoms in athletes taking anabolic steroids, the authors performed structured interviews of 41 body-builders and football players who had used steroids. According to DSM-III-R, nine subjects (22%) displayed a full affective syndrome, and five (12%) displayed psychotic symptoms in association with steroid use. These findings suggest that major psychiatric symptoms may be a common adverse effect of these drugs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anabolic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Bipolar Disorder / chemically induced
  • Depressive Disorder / chemically induced*
  • Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy
  • Female
  • Football
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methandrostenolone / adverse effects
  • Methyltestosterone / adverse effects
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychoses, Substance-Induced / etiology*
  • Weight Lifting


  • Anabolic Agents
  • Methandrostenolone
  • Methyltestosterone